In the history of US Presidential elections, it has happened five times that the winner of the popular vote lost the election. That occurred three times in the 19th century and has happened twice in the 21st.
During its first years as a country, the United States was governed by a parliamentary system of government. The Congress of the Confederation enacted all legislation, and one of its elected members was designated President of the United States in Congress Assembled, who served a one-year term. That changed in 1789 when the Constitution of the United States came into effect. George Washington was elected first President of the United States under the new constitution February 4, 1789. He began serving on April 30, 1789.
February 2 marks the anniversary of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which brought an end to the Mexican-American war of 1846–48. The terms of the treaty gave the United States the land that eventually became the states of California, Nevada, Utah, most of Arizona and parts of Colorado and New Mexico. Statehood came quickly for California, more slowly for Utah, New Mexico and Arizona.